Ever heard of tocophobia? It’s a term used to describe the fear of childbirth. Researchers in Sweden have found that when expectant fathers experience tocophobia, it may have negative effects on the birth experiences of their partners.
The study, titled 'Psychoprophylaxis - Antenatal preparation and actual use during labour', by Malin Bergström found that many of these men were fearful not only of the process of childbirth, but in their roles as parents as well. There have been some signs to indicate that tocophobia contributed to an increase in cesarean sections, pointing to the need for birth professionals to address these fears with expecting parents.
Since the study, the Swedish Medical University has begun providing childbirth preparation classes featuring the use of psychoprophylaxis (relaxation techniques) for all expectant parents with good results.
Childbirth educators encourage both mother and partner to participate in class discussions to try and address these common fears about labor and early parenting. Educational models such as the Bradley Method, Hypnobirthing, and Birthing from Within place a great deal of emphasis on the partner as a strong yet calm source of strength for the woman in labor by teaching the partner relaxation techniques like massage and affirmations.
In another study on childbirth education classes from Lamaze International* the researchers discovered the rate of attendance for childbirth courses, and particularly courses lasting more than one session, has been decreasing over the past several years. Couples are encouraged to take lengthier courses, independent of the hospital preparation courses to get a more complete training in birth support.
Additionally, hiring a doula can help parents receive one-on-one training in these techniques and a sense of security in asking questions concerning any anxieties in an intimate and supportive setting. Doulas also help the partner to feel comfortable that everything is going well in labor, knowing that the mother will never be left alone and that there is a constant source of guidance and expertise by their side.
For a list of childbirth educators in your area, visit the International Childbirth Educators Association website.
*Contemporary Dilemmas in American Childbirth Education: Findings From a Comparative Ethnographic Study, Christine H. Morton, PhD and Clarissa Hsu, PhD, Journal of Perinatal Medicine Fall 2007
In having a home birth you will not have hospital protocol around you. Having the knowledge that a class can give you may be priceless in the end! Your care provider may be able to give you some insight during your appointments, about what to expect. However this does not substitute taking a class and doing hands on learning.
So how do you choose which to go with? There are so many choices, here is a brief synopsis of some of the choices out there.
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Once you have chosen a care provider, the next step in planning a hospital birth is establishing your support system. I would argue that this is possibly the single most important thing you can do for both you and your baby to ensure you have the birth you desire. Having a solid support system to guide you through pregnancy, labor and delivery has been shown to increase women’s reports of satisfaction and happy memories of their labor and birth. This can also be the most challenging aspect of planning a birth.
The process of establishing a support system can be difficult because it requires you to be familiar with what you want out of the experience (preferences for interventions such as induction or pain medications,) and that you find people who will support your decisions without question. You likely have already been barraged with people who have unsolicited advice for you. While it can be beneficial to hear many different views and opinions on what helps and what doesn’t, the choice is ultimately yours.
When I gave birth to my first son, I was astonished at how unprepared I was to handle labor. I had a very supportive husband, but we were not as informed about the process as we should have been. During the end of my second pregnancy I started reading and discovered an amazing amount of information that helped me get through labor much easier the second time around. I discovered a number of sources of great information about handling labor and delivery in a naturalistic and intervention free way. Unfortunately, I was less than a month away from my EDD and I did not have enough time to thoroughly educate both myself and my husband properly to get through transition and I ultimately asked for an epidural. When I continued to read after the birth of my second son, I found even more information and confidence that I know will help me get through a third labor and delivery, drug free.
I have outlined two of what I think are “essential roles” to help you through labor and delivery. These roles can be played by anyone you chose, as long as you know that these people will trust in your beliefs about what you want, and will support you 100%. The process of assigning these roles to people in your life does not have to be done at one time or another, but should be ongoing throughout your pregnancy. You may discover that people are supportive at first, but as you discuss your wishes for labor and delivery, they try to impose their own opinions and values on you. You may want to wait to officially assign people to play these roles until you are nearing your due date so that you can be sure that they will support you the way you want them to.
Your Partner: This person is usually the husband, boyfriend, lover or life partner. Your partner loves you, trusts you, and is definitely going to be there for the big moment. If you do not have this person in your life now, consider a close friend who shares your values. If this person does not share your values and beliefs about labor and delivery, you may try to educate them with information you have found that supports your decisions. It may also be the case that this person will still support you even if they do not understand your decisions or would do things differently. Either way, it is essential that you trust this person to fully support you during labor and delivery. If you do not have someone close that you feel you can count on, you should consider a doula.
A Doula: A doula is a trained professional, typically a woman who is knowledgeable about all aspects of pregnancy, labor and delivery. Doulas are typically paid (though some utilize a sliding scale rate, and many in training work for free while they gain experience towards certification.) A Doula essentially acts as a secondary support system for both you and your partner, and ensures that your wishes about labor and delivery are adhered to. A Doula is an excellent resource to have if you are planning a natural birth in a hospital because she will be able to ensure that the hospital staff does not try to influence you to agree to unnecessary interventions such as pain medication or monitoring. You can read more about what a Doula does here on the DONA International website. You can also use the DONA site to find a doula. The presence of a Doula can help your partner feel supported so that he or she can better support you. Doulas do not replace your partner, they are a compliment to the partner.
Birthing classes are also a form of support for you and your partner for labor and delivery. There are a number of classes and methods that you can choose from. I have outlined some of the most common and familiar methods here.
The Bradley Method: This method underscores natural techniques combined with viewing the pregnancy, labor, and delivery process as being a partnership between mother and her partner. It is an experience that both people share, and this method focuses on educating both the mother and her partner about pregnancy, labor and birth so that the partner is better able to understand the process and thus better able to support the mother. The Bradley Method involves a 12 week course that both the mother and her partner attend, and is taught by certified instructors. Class sizes are small (3-6 couples), so that the instructor can provide one on one instruction. Click here to view more information on The Bradley Method.
Lamaze: is slightly more focused on labor and birth specifically, though it does encourage healthy and informed pregnancy choices as well. Lamaze is not simply breathing techniques anymore. It teaches the “6 Healthy Birth Practices” that focus on the choices a laboring mother has about her labor and delivery. It educates women about why avoiding interventions is helpful and offers naturalistic ways to manage labor. While its naturalistic views are similar to that of Bradley, there is less emphasis on the partner.</p>
HypnoBirthing: Also known as the Mongan Method, focuses on relaxation techniques and utilizes self hypnosis to help the birthing mother work with her body throughout the labor and birth process. It educates women and their partners about the natural process of labor and birth with strong emphasis on a variety of relaxation techniques including breathing exercises, and deep relaxation techniques that can be practiced throughout pregnancy. HypnoBirthing also emphasizes healthy pregnancy practices and provides women with lots of information to take home including a work book and relaxation scripts. Class sizes are small and private instruction is available. You can find a HypnoBirthing class for more information on Hypnobirthing.
There are also a number of books and authors that are I highly recommend. I have only read a few of these, but they have been recommended by a number of people I trust in the birthing community. If you would like to locate a book at a low cost, check out Amazon. You can often find books used at significantly below the retail cost in a store.
Also there are a number of Facebook Pages that I absolutely love including Birth Without Fear, Mamas and Babies, Mama Birth, and Breastfeeding Arts that are personal blogs by naturalistic mothers who share research information and personal stories to help mothers make informed choices. These pages offer a community of women who have experienced all different kinds of births and share their experiences and support for women looking for information to make informed decisions.
As you can see, there is a ton of information out there at your disposal. The key is finding it and figuring out what fits with your values and desires best. Even if you have only heard stories from women who said that labor is painful and you are expecting the worst, (which I was for my first birth), you will find a lot of great information in these resources that may help to reduce the chances that you will ask for pain medication and the need for other unnecessary interventions. I know I sound repetitive, but knowledge is POWER! Empower yourself to make the best choices for you and your baby so that you may have the best birth possible!
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